Starting with GHDL

In this chapter, you will learn how to use the GHDL compiler by working on two examples.

The hello world program

To illustrate the large purpose of VHDL, here is a commented VHDL “Hello world” program.

--  Hello world program.
use std.textio.all; -- Imports the standard textio package.

--  Defines a design entity, without any ports.
entity hello_world is
end hello_world;

architecture behaviour of hello_world is
begin
   process
      variable l : line;
   begin
      write (l, String'("Hello world!"));
      writeline (output, l);
      wait;
   end process;
end behaviour;

Suppose this program is contained in the file hello.vhdl. First, you have to compile the file; this is called analysis of a design file in VHDL terms.

$ ghdl -a hello.vhdl

This command creates or updates a file work-obj93.cf, which describes the library work. On GNU/Linux, this command generates a file hello.o, which is the object file corresponding to your VHDL program. The object file is not created on Windows.

Then, you have to build an executable file.

$ ghdl -e hello_world

The -e option means elaborate. With this option, GHDL creates code in order to elaborate a design, with the hello_world entity at the top of the hierarchy.

On GNU/Linux, if you have enabled the GCC backend during the compilation of GHDL, an executable program called hello_world which can be run is generated:

$ ghdl -r hello_world

or directly:

$ ./hello_world

On Windows or if the GCC backend was not enabled, no file is created. The simulation is launched using this command:

> ghdl -r hello_world

The result of the simulation appears on the screen:

Hello world!

A full adder

VHDL is generally used for hardware design. This example starts with a full adder described in the adder.vhdl file:

entity adder is
  -- `i0`, `i1` and the carry-in `ci` are inputs of the adder.
  -- `s` is the sum output, `co` is the carry-out.
  port (i0, i1 : in bit; ci : in bit; s : out bit; co : out bit);
end adder;

architecture rtl of adder is
begin
   --  This full-adder architecture contains two concurrent assignment.
   --  Compute the sum.
   s <= i0 xor i1 xor ci;
   --  Compute the carry.
   co <= (i0 and i1) or (i0 and ci) or (i1 and ci);
end rtl;

You can analyze this design file:

$ ghdl -a adder.vhdl

You can try to execute the adder design, but this is useless, since nothing externally visible will happen. In order to check this full adder, a testbench has to be run. This testbench is very simple, since the adder is also simple: it checks exhaustively all inputs. Note that only the behaviour is tested, timing constraints are not checked. The file adder_tb.vhdl contains the testbench for the adder:

--  A testbench has no ports.
entity adder_tb is
end adder_tb;

architecture behav of adder_tb is
   --  Declaration of the component that will be instantiated.
   component adder
     port (i0, i1 : in bit; ci : in bit; s : out bit; co : out bit);
   end component;

   --  Specifies which entity is bound with the component.
   for adder_0: adder use entity work.adder;
   signal i0, i1, ci, s, co : bit;
begin
   --  Component instantiation.
   adder_0: adder port map (i0 => i0, i1 => i1, ci => ci,
                            s => s, co => co);

   --  This process does the real job.
   process
      type pattern_type is record
         --  The inputs of the adder.
         i0, i1, ci : bit;
         --  The expected outputs of the adder.
         s, co : bit;
      end record;
      --  The patterns to apply.
      type pattern_array is array (natural range <>) of pattern_type;
      constant patterns : pattern_array :=
        (('0', '0', '0', '0', '0'),
         ('0', '0', '1', '1', '0'),
         ('0', '1', '0', '1', '0'),
         ('0', '1', '1', '0', '1'),
         ('1', '0', '0', '1', '0'),
         ('1', '0', '1', '0', '1'),
         ('1', '1', '0', '0', '1'),
         ('1', '1', '1', '1', '1'));
   begin
      --  Check each pattern.
      for i in patterns'range loop
         --  Set the inputs.
         i0 <= patterns(i).i0;
         i1 <= patterns(i).i1;
         ci <= patterns(i).ci;
         --  Wait for the results.
         wait for 1 ns;
         --  Check the outputs.
         assert s = patterns(i).s
            report "bad sum value" severity error;
         assert co = patterns(i).co
            report "bad carry out value" severity error;
      end loop;
      assert false report "end of test" severity note;
      --  Wait forever; this will finish the simulation.
      wait;
   end process;
end behav;

As usual, you should analyze the design:

$ ghdl -a adder_tb.vhdl

And build an executable for the testbench:

$ ghdl -e adder_tb

You do not need to specify which object files are required: GHDL knows them and automatically adds them in the executable. Now, it is time to run the testbench:

$ ghdl -r adder_tb
adder_tb.vhdl:52:7:(assertion note): end of test

If your design is rather complex, you’d like to inspect signals. Signals value can be dumped using the VCD file format. The resulting file can be read with a wave viewer such as GTKWave. First, you should simulate your design and dump a waveform file:

$ ghdl -r adder_tb --vcd=adder.vcd

Then, you may now view the waves:

$ gtkwave adder.vcd

See Simulation options, for more details on the --vcd option and other runtime options.

Starting with a design

Unless you are only studying VHDL, you will work with bigger designs than the ones of the previous examples.

Let’s see how to analyze and run a bigger design, such as the DLX model suite written by Peter Ashenden which is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. A copy is kept on http://ghdl.free.fr/dlx.tar.gz

First, untar the sources:

$ tar zxvf dlx.tar.gz

In order not to pollute the sources with the library, it is a good idea to create a work/ subdirectory for the WORK library. To any GHDL commands, we will add the --workdir=work option, so that all files generated by the compiler (except the executable) will be placed in this directory.

$ cd dlx
$ mkdir work

We will run the dlx_test_behaviour design. We need to analyze all the design units for the design hierarchy, in the correct order. GHDL provides an easy way to do this, by importing the sources:

$ ghdl -i --workdir=work *.vhdl

and making a design:

$ ghdl -m --workdir=work dlx_test_behaviour

Before this second stage, GHDL knows all the design units of the DLX, but no one have been analyzed. The make command of GHDL analyzes and elaborates a design. This creates many files in the work/ directory, and the dlx_test_behaviour executable in the current directory.

The simulation needs to have a DLX program contained in the file dlx.out. This memory image will be be loaded in the DLX memory. Just take one sample:

$ cp test_loop.out dlx.out

And you can run the test suite:

$ ghdl -r --workdir=work dlx_test_behaviour

The test bench monitors the bus and displays each instruction executed. It finishes with an assertion of severity level note:

dlx-behaviour.vhdl:395:11:(assertion note): TRAP instruction
 encountered, execution halted

Since the clock is still running, you have to manually stop the program with the C-c key sequence. This behavior prevents you from running the test bench in batch mode. However, you may force the simulator to stop when an assertion above or equal a certain severity level occurs:

$ ghdl -r --workdir=work dlx_test_behaviour --assert-level=note

With this option, the program stops just after the previous message:

dlx-behaviour.vhdl:395:11:(assertion note): TRAP instruction
 encountered, execution halted
error: assertion failed

If you want to make room on your hard drive, you can either:

  • clean the design library with the GHDL command:

    $ ghdl --clean --workdir=work
    

    This removes the executable and all the object files. If you want to rebuild the design at this point, just do the make command as shown above.

  • remove the design library with the GHDL command:

    $ ghdl --remove --workdir=work
    

    This removes the executable, all the object files and the library file. If you want to rebuild the design, you have to import the sources again, and to make the design.

  • remove the work/ directory:

    $ rm -rf work
    

    Only the executable is kept. If you want to rebuild the design, create the work/ directory, import the sources, and make the design.

Sometimes, a design does not fully follow the VHDL standards. For example it uses the badly engineered std_logic_unsigned package. GHDL supports this VHDL dialect through some options:

--ieee=synopsys -fexplicit

See IEEE library pitfalls, for more details.